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Authors: Miron Dolot

Execution by Hunger (28 page)

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Kolhosp court was one of the irregular courts set up in Ukrainian villages during the collectivization. At first they acted as comradely courts, and their jurisdiction never exceeded petty offenses. The kolhosp court was supervised by the village soviet. But during the peak of collectivization, the kolhosp courts acted as regular courts of law with the reservation that cases of political nature, or serious crimes, were referred to higher courts of law or to the security organs. Often, if not all the time, the entire kolhosp court proceeding was conducted by the secretary of the village Party organization.

Baltic Sea-White Sea Canal is a canal connecting the White Sea with the Baltic. It was built in 1931–1933, mainly by Ukrainian farmers who were branded kurkuls and banished to the forced labor camps situated along the building sites of the canal. The majority of those farmers died from exposure, starvation, and hard labor.

is a derogatory Russian word meaning a poor, ignorant peasant woman.

People's assessors—instead of a jury, Soviet courts of law have so-called people's assessors, usually three in number. They are elected by a universal vote for two years, but the elections are usually fictitious. The candidates are approved by the appropriate Party organization. Although these assessors have equal rights with the judge in passing a verdict, in reality they are nothing but mute witnesses to the court procedures. The kolhosp court, although not a regular court of law, had at that time two people's assessors.

A Red Partisan was a participant in the Communist partisan (guerrilla) warfare during the Civil War of 1918–1921. This title became synonymous with being a Soviet patriot, and, as such, it secured all kinds of privileges for its bearer.

Janissary (or
) was a soldier of an elite Ottoman (Turkish) army unit. The Janissaries were exclusively recruited by forced levy of Christian children. They were known for their implicit obedience. In Ukrainian, this word is synonymous with henchman.

BOOK: Execution by Hunger
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