Authors: Mometrix Media
Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam
Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Test Review for the
Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam
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ISBN 13: 978-1-60971-239-6
ISBN 10: 1-60971-239-0
Dear Future Exam Success Story:
Congratulations on your purchase of our study guide. Our goal in writing our study guide was to cover the content on the test, as well as provide insight into typical test taking mistakes and how to overcome them.
Standardized tests are a key component of being successful, which only increases the importance of doing well in the high-pressure high-stakes environment of test day. How well you do on this test will have a significant impact on your future, and we have the research and practical advice to help you execute on test day.
The product you’re reading now is designed to exploit weaknesses in the test itself, and help you avoid the most common errors test takers frequently make.
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First, read through the study guide completely to get a feel for the content and organization. Read the general success strategies first, and then proceed to the content sections. Each tip has been carefully selected for its effectiveness.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Top 20 Test Taking Tips
Assessment and Diagnosis
Methods of questioning that encourage the patient to give an accurate, in-depth personal history
Open discussion: Promotes patient comfort by encouraging questions and feedback during the interview.
Ask leading questions: Ask questions that require more than a “yes” or “no” answer and give clear permission for the patient to speak freely about his/her health.
Restate and summarize provided information in another way: Allows you to verify that your understanding of given information is correct.
Focus: Assist the patient to concentrate on identifying his/her highest healthcare needs or make connections between healthcare behavior and larger priorities.
Order and sequence: Verify cause and effect and timing of the events given in a patient history.
Encourage self-evaluation: Allow the patient to draw his/her own conclusions regarding information. Do not judge or try to educate at this point.
Make observations: Provide commentary on the patient’s physical, mental and emotional demeanor to help him/her focus and give permission to discuss further aspects of his/her health or immediate needs.
Comprehensive cardiovascular patient assessment
General order of procedure for a physical examination
This general procedure varies slightly during assessment of the abdomen, placing auscultation before palpation and percussion. Other systems may not require the use of all four examination elements.
Physical examination in patients with known or suspected peripheral artery disease (PAD)
Risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease
Risk factors that the patient and his/her healthcare provider can exercise some control over are identified as modifiable. These can include smoking, excess weight, alcohol use, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, active management of diabetes, stress and the amount of exercise the patient engages in.
Risk factors beyond the patient’s control include: age, male gender and genetic tendencies including race (Caucasian, black or Native American) and family history.
The greatest risk is to those who have already experienced a cardiovascular event or have been previously diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease such as peripheral vascular disease, aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. Others with high risk include those who have at least two of the modifiable or non-modifiable risk factors or type II diabetes.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD and chronic heart disease (CHD) share a common causative factor: smoking. Priority preventive care and education would focus on smoking cessation for the patient presenting with COPD; this will in turn lower his/her risk of CHD.
The patient presenting with COPD is at a greater risk for cardiac and vascular problems such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular heart failure (cor pulmonale). Likewise, the patient with both cardiovascular problems and COPD is faced with a higher mortality rate than the patient with only one condition. COPD also complicates and slows recovery from chronic heart disease and surgical procedures that might be used in the treatment of CHD.
Diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The patient with diabetes should be treated as if he or she already has cardiovascular disease when addressing treatment and risk factor reduction. Approximately ⅔ of all individuals diagnosed with diabetes will die as a result of cardiovascular disease. This is particularly alarming when considering the rapid growth trends for newly diagnosed diabetics. Highest priority is given to maintaining an HbA1c level at or below 7. Complications such as retinopathy, microalbuminuria, neuropathy and elevated cholesterol levels can be reduced with tight blood sugar control. Careful blood sugar maintenance is also required after surgical procedures to reduce the risks of infection and delayed healing.
Cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease, most commonly chronic heart disease and carotid artery occlusive disease, are often coexisting because of their overlapping risk factors. Cardiovascular accident (CVA) is the third leading cause of death in the United States and can be directly linked to atherosclerosis. The patient experiencing dysrhythmia, MI or cardiopulmonary arrest is at increased risk for subsequent acute cerebrovascular injury. Cardiac and vascular surgeries can also result in CVAs. On the other end of the spectrum, the patient experiencing a CVA is less likely to survive if he/she also has chronic heart disease.
Pain that should be assessed in a thorough patient history