The Pentagon: A History

BOOK: The Pentagon: A History
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T
O MY PARENTS,
D
ONALD AND
J
OAN
V
OGEL

 

G
O SIR, GALLOP, AND DON’T FORGET THAT THE WORLD WAS MADE IN SIX DAYS
. Y
OU CAN ASK ME FOR ANYTHING YOU LIKE, EXCEPT TIME.

—N
APOLEON
B
ONAPARTE

 

Map by Laris Karklis & Brenna Maloney

Map showing Washington, D.C., Arlington County, Virginia, and environs in the summer of 1941.

Map by Laris Karklis & Brenna Maloney

 

Front Matter
The Pentagon and environs, December 1942, U.S. Army map (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Office of History)

Front Matter
Map of Washington, D.C., in 1941 by Laris Karklis and Brenna Maloney

Front Matter
Pentagon timeline by Laris Karklis and Brenna Maloney

Front Matter
Irregular Pentagon sketch for early plot plan (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Office of History)

Part 1
Photo of Somervell in 1941 by Harris & Ewing (
The Washington Post
photo archives)

Chapter 1
Somervell as bricklayer cartoon © 1941 by
The Washington Post,
reprinted by permission

Chapter 2
Stathes aerial perspective drawing (National Archives)

Chapter 3
Original site map (National Archives)

Chapter 4
FDR heaven cartoon © 1941 by
The Washington Post,
reprinted by permission

Chapter 5
Pentagon overlay on 1878–79 map. Original map: G. M. Hopkins, Griffith Morgan. Philadelphia: G. M. Hopkins, 1879, c. 1878 (Library of Congress). Overlay: Daniel Koski-Karell, Technical Report: Historical and Archaeological Background Research of the GSA Pentagon Complex Project Area, 1986. (Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington Historical Office)

Chapter 6
Architects rendering, October 1941 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of History)

Chapter 7
Aerial photo with blimp. U.S. Army photo (Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington Historical Office)

Chapter 8
Aerial photo by Harry Goodwin, showing the Pentagon construction site right before Pearl Harbor © 1941 by
The Washington Post,
reprinted by permission

Chapter 9
Field progress report, May 1942 (National Archives)

Chapter 10
Soldiers in hallway, U.S. Army photo (Pentagon Library)

Chapter 11
Popular Science
schematic (Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington Historical Office)

Chapter 12
Capitol from
Popular Mechanic
s © 1943 by The Hearst Corporation, reprinted by permission

Chapter 13
Somervell and Stimson cartoon © 1944 by
The Washington Post,
reprinted by permission

Chapter 14
Empire State Building graphic (Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington Historical Office)

Chapter 15
Pentagon tower drawing, U.S. Army (
The Washington Post
photo archives)

Part 2
Rendering of Pentagon memorial (Pentagon Memorial Fund)

Part 2
Officer in concourse showing Brazilian visitors model of the Pentagon, 1946 U.S. Army photo (
The Washington Post
photo archives)

Chapter 17
Photo of marchers in front of Pentagon (
The Washington Post
photo archives)

Chapter 18
Map of the march on the Pentagon by Mike Jenkins, Peter Jenkins, and Brad Goodwin

Chapter 18
Pentagon renovation logo, the Pentagon Renovation and Construction program (PENREN)

Chapter 19
The damaged Pentagon on September 11, 2001 (Department of Defense)

Chapter 20
The plane’s path on 9/11, adapted by Michael Keegan from an original 2002 graphic by Doug Stevens and Brenna Maloney in
The Washington Post,
reprinted by permission

Chapter 20
Aerial photo showing the Phoenix Project, Pentagon Renovation and Construction program (PENREN)

Chapter 21
Rendering of Pentagon memorial (Pentagon Memorial Fund)

PART I

(Ranks and titles are primarily as of 1941)

The Builders—Army

Brigadier General Brehon B. Somervell,
chief of the Army’s Construction Division, later commander of Army Services of Supply

Colonel Leslie R. Groves,
chief of operations and later deputy chief of Construction Division, later head of the Manhattan Project

Lieutenant Colonel Hugh “Pat” Casey,
chief of design for Construction Division

Captain Clarence Renshaw,
constructing quartermaster/engineer for the Pentagon project

Lieutenant Robert Furman,
executive officer for the Pentagon project

The Builders—Contractors and Architects

John McShain,
chief contractor for the Pentagon project

J. Paul Hauck,
job superintendent for the Pentagon project

G. Edwin Bergstrom,
chief architect for the War Department

David Witmer,
chief assistant to Bergstrom, later his replacement

Luther Leisenring,
chief of the architects’ specifications section

Ides van der Gracht,
chief of production for the Pentagon design team

Socrates Thomas “Red” Stathes,
a draftsman

Larry Lemmon,
a draftsman

The White House

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Harry Hopkins,
special adviser to FDR and former head of the Works Projects Administration

Major General Edwin “Pa” Watson,
the president’s military aide

Harold Smith,
director of the White House budget office

Harold Ickes,
secretary of the interior

The War Department

Henry L. Stimson,
secretary of war

General George C. Marshall,
Army chief of staff

Robert Patterson,
under secretary of war

John J. McCloy,
assistant secretary of war

Robert Lovett,
assistant secretary of war for air

William Hastie,
civilian aide to Stimson

Members of Congress

Senator Harry S. Truman,
Democrat of Missouri, chairman of Senate special committee investigating national defense; in April 1945 succeeded FDR as president

Representative Clifton Woodrum,
Democrat of Virginia, member of House Appropriations Committee

Representative Merlin Hull,
Progressive of Wisconsin

Senator Carter Glass, Democrat of Virginia,
chairman of Senate Appropriations Committee

Representative Albert Engel,
Republican of Michigan, member of House Military Appropriations subcommittee

Civilian Commissioners and Staff

Gilmore Clarke,
chairman of the Commission of Fine Arts

Frederic Delano,
chairman of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission and uncle to the president

William Delano,
member of planning commission; friend of Somervell’s and distant cousin to Frederic Delano

Hans Paul Caemmerer,
secretary of the fine arts commission

Jay Downer,
highway consultant, associate of Clarke and Delano

Paul Phillipe Cret,
architect and member of fine arts commission

Army Officers and Staff

Colonel Ernest Graves,
Corps of Engineers officer, mentor to Somervell and Groves

Brigadier General Charles “Baldy” Hartman,
Somervell’s predecessor as chief of construction

Brigadier General Eugene Reybold,
chief of supply, later chief engineer

Major General Edmund Gregory,
quartermaster general

Major Garrison “Gar” Davidson,
an aide to Groves and the former West Point football coach

George Holmes,
Somervell’s public relations man

Captain Donald Antes,
an aide to Groves

Brigadier General Wilhelm B. “Fat” Styer,
deputy to Somervell

Brigadier General Alexander D. Surles,
chief of the Bureau of Public Relations

Colonel Thomas F. Farrell,
executive officer to Groves

Brigadier General Thomas M. Robins,
Somervell’s replacement as chief of construction

Brigadier General Dwight D. Eisenhower,
chief of war plans; later Allied commander for landings in North Africa and Europe; Marshall’s successor as Army chief of staff

Lieutenant General Henry H. (Hap) Arnold,
commander of Army Air Forces

Major Franklin Matthias,
an aide to Groves

Navy Department

Henry Knox,
secretary of the Navy

Admiral Ernest King,
commander in chief of the United States Fleet

Workers

Stanley “Joe” Nance Allan,
a carpenter

Donald Walker,
a steelworker

Hank Neighbors,
a payroll witness

The First Pentagon Employees (“The Plank Walkers”)

Helen McShane Bailey,
administrative assistant, Office of the Chief of Staff

Marjorie Hanshaw,
secretary, Ordnance Department supply section

Opal Sheets,
“Miss 10,000,” administrative assistant, Services of Supply

Marian Bailey,
a telephone operator and later supervisor

Lucille Ramale,
file clerk, Transportation Corps

Henry Bennett,
clerk, Ordnance Department

Jimmy Harold,
assistant engineer, Ordnance Department field service

BOOK: The Pentagon: A History
3.78Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
ads

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