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The Milky Way and Beyond

BOOK: The Milky Way and Beyond
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THE MILKY WAY AND BEYOND

S
TARS
, N
EBULAE, AND
O
THER
G
ALAXIES

A
N
E
XPLORER'S
G
UIDE TO THE
U
NIVERSE

THE
MILKY WAY
AND BEYOND

S
TARS
, N
EBULAE, AND
O
THER
G
ALAXIES

E
DITED BY
E
RIK
G
REGERSEN
, A
SSOCIATE
E
DITOR
, A
STRONOMY AND
S
PACE
E
XPLORATION

Published in 2010 by Britannica Educational Publishing
(a trademark of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.)
in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC
29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.

Copyright © 2010 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica,
and the Thistle logo are registered trademarks of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. All
rights reserved.

Rosen Educational Services materials copyright © 2010 Rosen Educational Services, LLC.
All rights reserved.

Distributed exclusively by Rosen Educational Services.
For a listing of additional Britannica Educational Publishing titles, call toll free (800) 237-9932.

First Edition

Britannica Educational Publishing
Michael I. Levy: Executive Editor
Marilyn L. Barton: Senior Coordinator, Production Control
Steven Bosco: Director, Editorial Technologies
Lisa S. Braucher: Senior Producer and Data Editor
Yvette Charboneau: Senior Copy Editor
Kathy Nakamura: Manager, Media Acquisition
Erik Gregersen: Associate Editor, Astronomy and Space Exploration

Rosen Educational Services
Jeanne Nagle: Senior Editor
Nelson Sá: Art Director
Matthew Cauli: Designer
Introduction by Greg Roza

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The Milky Way and beyond / edited by Erik Gregersen.—1st ed.
    p. cm.—(An explorer's guide to the universe)
“In association with Britannica Educational Publishing, Rosen Educational Services.”
Includes index.
ISBN 978-1-61530-053-2 (eBook)
1. Milky Way—Popular works. 2. Galaxies—Popular works. I. Gregersen, Erik.
QB857.7.M55 2010
523.1'13—dc22

2009037980

On the cover:
Thousands of sparkling young stars are nestled within the giant nebula NGC 3603, one of the most massive young star clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy.
NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration

CONTENTS

I
NTRODUCTION

C
HAPTER 1:
T
HE
M
ILKY
W
AY
G
ALAXY

The Structure and Dynamics of the Milky Way Galaxy

Structure of the Spiral System

The Nucleus

The Central Bulge

The Disk

The Spiral Arms

The Spherical Component

The Massive Halo

Magnetic Field

Rotation

Mass

Star Populations and Movement

Stars and Stellar Populations

Principal Population Types

The Stellar Luminosity Function

Density Distribution

Density Distribution of Various Types of Stars

Variations in the Stellar Density

Variation of Star Density with
z
Distances

Stellar Motions

Proper Motions

Radial Velocities

Space Motions

High-Velocity Stars

Solar Motion

Solar Motion Calculations from Radial Velocities

Solar Motion Calculations from Proper Motions

Solar Motion Calculations from Space Motions

Solar Motion Solutions

C
HAPTER 2:
S
TARS

The Nature of Stars

Size and Activity

Variations in Stellar Size

Stellar Activity and Mass Loss

The 20 Brightest Stars

Distances to the Stars

Determining Stellar Distances

Nearest Stars

The 20 Nearest Stars

Stellar Positions

Basic Measurements

Stellar Motions

Light from the Stars

Stellar Magnitudes

Stellar Colours

Magnitude Systems

Bolometric Magnitudes

Stellar Spectra

Line Spectrum

Spectral Analysis

Classification of Spectral Types

Bulk Stellar Properties

Stellar Temperatures

Stellar Masses

Visual Binaries

Spectroscopic Binaries

Eclipsing Binaries

Binaries and Extrasolar Planetary Systems

Stellar Radii

Average Stellar Values

Stellar Statistics

Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Estimates of Stellar Ages

Numbers of Stars Versus Luminosity

Mass-Luminosity Correlations

Variable Stars

Classification

Pulsating Stars

Explosive Variables

Peculiar Variables

Stellar Atmospheres

Stellar Interiors

Distribution of Matter

Source of Stellar Energy

C
HAPTER 3:
S
TAR
F
ORMATION AND
E
VOLUTION

Birth of Stars and Evolution to the Main Sequence

BOOK: The Milky Way and Beyond
5.35Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
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